from typing import Any, Dict, NoReturn, Pattern, Tuple, Type, TypeVar, Union
__all__ = [
"""Exception indicating a violation of the HTTP/1.1 protocol.
This as an abstract base class, with two concrete base classes:
:exc:`LocalProtocolError`, which indicates that you tried to do something
that HTTP/1.1 says is illegal, and :exc:`RemoteProtocolError`, which
indicates that the remote peer tried to do something that HTTP/1.1 says is
illegal. See :ref:`error-handling` for details.
In addition to the normal :exc:`Exception` features, it has one attribute:
.. attribute:: error_status_hint
This gives a suggestion as to what status code a server might use if
this error occurred as part of a request.
For a :exc:`RemoteProtocolError`, this is useful as a suggestion for
how you might want to respond to a misbehaving peer, if you're
implementing a server.
For a :exc:`LocalProtocolError`, this can be taken as a suggestion for
how your peer might have responded to *you* if h11 had allowed you to
The default is 400 Bad Request, a generic catch-all for protocol
def __init__(self, msg: str, error_status_hint: int = 400) -> None:
if type(self) is ProtocolError:
raise TypeError("tried to directly instantiate ProtocolError")
self.error_status_hint = error_status_hint
# Strategy: there are a number of public APIs where a LocalProtocolError can
# be raised (send(), all the different event constructors, ...), and only one
# public API where RemoteProtocolError can be raised
# (receive_data()). Therefore we always raise LocalProtocolError internally,
# and then receive_data will translate this into a RemoteProtocolError.
# LocalProtocolError is the generic "ProtocolError".
# LocalProtocolError is for local errors and RemoteProtocolError is for
# remote errors.
def _reraise_as_remote_protocol_error(self) -> NoReturn:
# After catching a LocalProtocolError, use this method to re-raise it
# as a RemoteProtocolError. This method must be called from inside an
# except: block.
# An easy way to get an equivalent RemoteProtocolError is just to
# modify 'self' in place.
self.__class__ = RemoteProtocolError # type: ignore
# But the re-raising is somewhat non-trivial -- you might think that
# now that we've modified the in-flight exception object, that just
# doing 'raise' to re-raise it would be enough. But it turns out that
# this doesn't work, because Python tracks the exception type
# (exc_info) separately from the exception object (exc_info),
# and we only modified the latter. So we really do need to re-raise
# the new type explicitly.
# On py3, the traceback is part of the exception object, so our
# in-place modification preserved it and we can just re-raise:
regex: Pattern[bytes], data: bytes, msg: str = "malformed data", *format_args: Any
) -> Dict[str, bytes]:
match = regex.fullmatch(data)
if not match:
msg = msg.format(*format_args)
# Sentinel values
# - Inherit identity-based comparison and hashing from object
# - Have a nice repr
# - Have a *bonus property*: type(sentinel) is sentinel
# The bonus property is useful if you want to take the return value from
# next_event() and do some sort of dispatch based on type(event).
_T_Sentinel = TypeVar("_T_Sentinel", bound="Sentinel")
bases: Tuple[type, ...],
namespace: Dict[str, Any],
) -> _T_Sentinel:
assert bases == (Sentinel,)
v = super().__new__(cls, name, bases, namespace, **kwds)
v.__class__ = v # type: ignore
def __repr__(self) -> str:
# Used for methods, request targets, HTTP versions, header names, and header
# values. Accepts ascii-strings, or bytes/bytearray/memoryview/..., and always
# returns bytes.
def bytesify(s: Union[bytes, bytearray, memoryview, int, str]) -> bytes:
if type(s) is bytes:
if isinstance(s, str):
s = s.encode("ascii")
if isinstance(s, int):
raise TypeError("expected bytes-like object, not int")